Air-gap Limitations and Bypass Techniques: “Command and Control” using Smart Electromagnetic Interferences

  • Chaouki Kasmi Wireless Security Lab French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI)
  • José Lopes Esteves Wireless Security Lab French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI)
  • Philippe Valembois Wireless Security Lab French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI)


Air gaps are generally considered to be a very efficient information security protection. However, this technique also showed limitations, involving finding covert channels for bridging the air gap. Interestingly, recent publications have pointed out that a smart use of the intentional electromagnetic interferences introduced new threats for information security. In this paper, an innovative way for remotely communicating with a malware already installed on a computer by involving the induced perturbations is discussed leading to the design of a new air gap bridging covert channel.


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How to Cite
KASMI, Chaouki; LOPES ESTEVES, José; VALEMBOIS, Philippe. Air-gap Limitations and Bypass Techniques: “Command and Control” using Smart Electromagnetic Interferences. The Journal on Cybercrime & Digital Investigations, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 1, p. 13-19, jan. 2016. ISSN 2494-2715. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 nov. 2018. doi:
Conference proceedings